Movement disorders are neurological illnesses that impair one's capacity to initiate and regulate movement in the body. A range of neurological (nervous system) illnesses that either result in enhanced movement or diminished or delayed movement are collectively referred to as movement disorders. These motions might be deliberate or unconscious.
The conditions we encounter and treat most frequently are as follows:
Essential tremors : A nervous system condition known as essential tremor results in uncontrolled shaking.
Parkinson's disease : A condition of the central nervous system that impairs mobility and is frequently accompanied with tremors
Dystonia : A condition in which there are recurrent, uncontrollable muscular spasms.
Ataxia: lack of complete motor control
Huntington's disease : A genetic syndrome that damages brain nerve cells and frequently results in mobility, cognitive, and behavioural issues.
Multiple system atrophy : A condition of the nervous system that affects several bodily systems and results in a gradual loss of function.
Progressive supranuclear palsy : The disorder known as Progressive supranuclear palsy affects walking, balance, and eye movements.
Restless legs syndrome : causes unpleasant or painful leg sensations and a persistent impulse to move the legs.
Tourette syndrome : A disorder that causes unwanted noises or repeated motions.
Causes of Movement Disorders
The disease is almost always found in the brain, particularly in a region known as the basal ganglia. The grey matter, which is located deep within the brain or cerebrum, includes this area.
The cerebellum or brain's base may also have the abnormalities. This makes it difficult to maintain proper posture and balance while moving around or walking.
Although aberrant motions are frequently attributed to heredity, there are other reasons as well, including stress, medicines, and other factors.
Stress and Anxiety :
These might cause irregular movements, such as tremors. Movements that are rhythmic in nature can be described as tremors.
Stress and emotional factors both have the potential to cause them. It's typical for older people to have fundamental tremors. Although not lethal, the illness can lead to significant debility.
The usage of some medications may induce several movement problems as hypokinesia, dystonia, chorea, etc. These movement problems may be brought on by antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia or anti-nausea medications like methoclopramide.
Tremors can be caused by chronic illnesses such an overactive thyroid gland.
Alcoholism can cause ataxia, which is characterised by irregular gait or movement. Both balance and coordination are problematic.
There are several varieties. In this disorder, the cerebellum is frequently impacted.
Although the specific origin of restless leg syndrome is uncertain, iron deficiency is likely to be to blame.
Caffeine, alcohol, and excessive nicotine have also been linked.
Nearly 20% of pregnant women get restless legs syndrome, which goes away after delivery. Renal failure patients may also have symptoms.
There is some indication that the use of blood pressure-lowering medications including calcium channel blockers, lithium (a mood stabiliser), and antidepressants may make the disease worse.
Parkinson's is a neurological disorder. The basal ganglia's capacity to manufacture dopamine, the brain's chemical messenger, is declining.
The primary culprit is genetics. Other reasons include exposure to pesticides, antipsychotic medicines including phenothiazines, prochlorperazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and the anti-vomiting medication metoclopramide, as well as extended exposure to heavy metals like copper and manganese.
Sometimes, movement disorders can be caused by chromosomal abnormalities and can be genetically passed on as well. Huntington’s disease is one such common disorder.